It was a good start for City and Aguero whose two goals ensured his 200th goal for the club.
The game between title winners and Cup holders is the traditional curtain-raiser to the new English football season.
But on this evidence the gap between the two teams, which last season stood at 30 points in the Premier League, is as wide as ever.
This is even in spite of the arrival of Maurizio Sarri as Blues manager and new signing Jorginho.
Aguero struck his first on 13 minutes after Phil Foden, filling in admirably for Kevin De Bruyne, burst forward to find the Argentine.
He wrong-footed Antonio Rudiger with a low shot to become the first Manchester City player to reach a double century of goals.
Chelsea, who were without Eden Hazard, took 25 minutes to even register a shot and seldom threatened.
It was no surprise then when Aguero added a second from a Bernardo Silva pass after spurning an even clearer chance moments earlier.
Manchester City cut Chelsea apart to become the first English Premier League champions to win the trophy since Manchester United in 2013.